Atomic Facts & Figures

Oxygen Facts

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Oxygen
8O
Appearance
colorless gas; pale blue liquid. Oxygen bubbles rise in this photo of liquid oxygen.
A glass bottle half-filled with a bluish bubbling liquid

Spectral lines of oxygen
General properties
Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8
Pronunciation /ˈɒksɨən/ ok-si-jən
Metallic category nonmetal, chalcogen
Group, period,block 16, 2, p
Standard atomic weight 15.999(4)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p4
2, 6
Electron shells of oxygen (2, 6)
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1772)
Named by Antoine Lavoisier (1777)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.429 g/L
Liquid density atb.p. 1.141 g·cm−3
Melting point 54.36 K, -218.79 °C, -361.82 °F
Boiling point 90.20 K, -182.95 °C, -297.31 °F
Critical point 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa
Heat of fusion (O2) 0.444 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (O2) 6.82 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (O2)
29.378 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)       61 73 90
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 1, −1, −2
Electronegativity 3.44 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1313.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3388.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 5300.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 66±2 pm
Van der Waals radius 152 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure cubic
Oxygen has a cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Thermal conductivity 26.58x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 330 m·s−1
CAS registry number 7782-44-7
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of oxygen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
16O 99.76% 16O is stable with 8 neutrons
17O 0.039% 17O is stable with 9 neutrons
18O 0.201% 18O is stable with 10 neutrons

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